Society and Politics

Wskazówki dla autorów

Text anonymisation

In order to ensure proper execution of the review procedure (double-blind review), the author should take care of full anonymisation of the text (by removing any personal data, file properties, footnotes, endnotes or expressions indicating the author of the text (e.g. footnotes containing ‘as I wrote in …’ or similar phrases).

Text length and format

  • The text should be saved as a .doc or .docx file,
  • The length of the text – about 40,000 characters (i.e. approx. 1 author’s sheet, including the summary, key words, footnotes or endnotes and the bibliography).
  • The text should be justified (left- and right-aligned at the same time), with a first line indent of 0.63 cm.
  • Margins (top, bottom, left and right): 2.5 cm each.
  • Font: Times New Roman, font size for the body text: 12 pt, 1.5 spacing, for headings and subheadings: 14 pt.

Article layout

  • Full name(s) of the author(s).
  • Name of the represented institution (abbreviated affiliation of the author(s)).
  • ORCID no. (nos.)
  • Title of the article in the original language.
  • Title of the article as translated into English / Polish.
  • Abstract (a maximum of 1,000 characters) in English, fully communicating the contents of the article, including the presentation of the following:
    • the purpose of the article, its main propositions / hypotheses / research questions,
    • the research methods used / the research approach adopted,
    • the main research findings / theoretical conclusions / practical implications,
  • Key words in English (a minimum of 3, a maximum of 5).
  • Abstract in Polish (a maximum of 1,000 characters), including as above.
  • Key words in Polish (as above).
  • JEL classification code (Journal Economic Literature,
    • Article category (according to the following classification):
    • research article,
    • case study,
    • methodical article,
    • conceptual article,
    • review article.
  • The contents of the article (e.g. identifying the research subject; justifying the selection of the topic; presenting the current state of knowledge on the subject; specifying the research objectives/questions/hypotheses; describing the research method adopted; indicating original and/or innovative elements of the article and its possible practical applications). Particular sections of the article should be distinguished by captions or subheadings.
  • Bibliography.
  • (Full) affiliation, including:
  • title(s)/degree(s) and full name(s) of the author(s),
  • name of the represented institution,
    • name of the organisational unit (faculty, department or other, according to the structure of the entity concerned),
    • address of the organisational unit,
    • e-mail address(es) of the author(s).

Graphic objects and formulas

  • All graphic objects (defined as tables, charts, diagrams or figures) should be referred to in the text and inserted in the text as closely as possible to the place of the relevant reference.
  • Each graphic object should be preceded by its title (caption), font size 10 pt and in bold, in two lines: in the first line – the word ‘Table’ / ‘Figure’, in the second line: the left-aligned title. The order should be indicated using uniform continuous numbering with Arabic numerals.
  • Each graphic object should be followed by its source or by the information ‘prepared by the author(s)’ or ‘prepared by the author(s) based on …’. The font size for sources – 9 pt; in the case of several graphic objects with the same source, the reference should be worded as follows: Source: as in Table 1 / as in Figure 1.
  • Graphic objects together with their titles and source references should be placed within the text column, i.e. a column of 13 cm x 19 cm (after formatting).
  • The background colour for objects should be white. Particular elements can be grey-scale items containing legible text or filled with a pattern.
  • Where a figure presents research results illustrated as a graph, it must display the relevant data values (on or next to the bars).
  • The font to be used for any text contained in figures or tables is Times New Roman, font size: 9 pt, single spacing.
  • Graphic objects cannot be scanned. Figures, tables, charts should be prepared in editable formats, i.e. as Word or Excel files.
  • In the case of pictures or screenshots, raster formats (.psd, .tif, .jpg) should be used.
  • Tables should use letters as references. Any footnote(s) relating to a table should be placed immediately below the table and before the indication of the source.
  • Tables should contain no empty cells. Any missing data should be denoted as follows:
      • a dash (-) where a given phenomenon does not occur,
      • zero (0) where a given phenomenon occurs but in quantities below numbers that could be expressed with the numerical values used in the table in question (e.g. if a phenomenon is expressed in thousand tonnes, ‘0’ means that its value in the case concerned is lower than 0.5 thousand tonnes), 
      • a dot (.) where there is no information or no reliable information,
      • an ‘x’ (x) where it is impossible or impracticable to fill in the cell concerned due to the table layout,
      • the letters ‘n/d’ (n/d) where there are no data.
  • Any text in the main row and column headers in tables must start with capital letters, whereas those in subsequent row and column headers – with small letters. No full stop is used at the end, except where it is included in an abbreviation.
  • For writing any text containing mathematical symbols and/or formulas, an equation editor should be used. Formulas should be numbered by placing the relevant number in parenthesis on the right. It facilitates in-text references to such formulas.

Bulleted or numbered lists

Please use dashes or Arabic numerals only.

In-text references to sources

  • In the body text, the Harvard referencing style should be used, by placing an in-text reference in brackets, containing the surname of the author, the year of publication and, where relevant, the publication page number. The manner of providing such information depends on the context of the sentence, e.g.:
  • According to Kowalski (2021), it is a positive phenomenon.
  • Other authors view the phenomenon as positive (Kowalski 2021, p. 222).
    • Where there are two authors, both surnames must be given, e.g.:
    • (Kowalski, Kwiatkowski 2021).
  • For three authors, all the three surnames are listed as well, e.g.:
    • (Kowalski, Kwiatkowski, Malinowski 2021).
  • For more authors, the citation must include the first surname followed by the abbreviation ‘et al.’, e.g.:
    • (Kowalski et al. 2021).
  • In the case of referring to several publications, those should appear in alphabetical order first and in chronological order next, e.g.:
    • (Kowalski 2005; Kowalski 2012; Kwiatkowski 2012; Kowalski 2015); or (Kowalski 2005; 2012; 2015; Kwiatkowski 2012).
  • For references to several works by the same author and published in the same year, letters are added as in the following example:
    • (Kowalski 2012a; Kowalski 2012b) or (Kowalski 2012a; 2012b).
  • For references to publications by two persons with the same surname, their initials must be added, e.g.:
    • (K. Kowalski 2011; Z. Kowalski, 2011).
  • Citations must follow the same rules. It is necessary to add the number of the page cited in brackets, e.g.:
    • (Kowalski 2021, p. 21).
  • For references to legal acts, the beginning of the title should be provided, e.g.:
    • (Ustawa … 2021).
  • In the case of referring to collaborative (edited) works where it is impossible to identify the author of a specific section of the work concerned, an in-text reference should contain the title of the publication or its abbreviated form and the year of publication, e.g.:
    • (Reklama w procesach konkurencji 2021)
  • References to websites or web pages containing materials with no author indicated:
    • ( or e.g.
    • (www1) – and an appropriate description in the bibliography.



In Harvard style, it is necessary to provide, at the end of each text, a full bibliography – a list of publications referred to in the text. It must be prepared in alphabetical order, by author name or by title (where there is no author / editor / institution). The works by one author should be listed in chronological order. If several works by the same author have the same year of publication, the publications should be ordered alphabetically. If multiple publications are authored or co-authored by the same person (resulting in several bibliography entries starting with the same surname), independently authored publications should be listed first, followed by co-authored works. In collaborative works, the first element of the description should be the surname(s) of the scientific editor(s), with the relevant abbreviation (ed. (eds.)).In general, the following order should be used in references:
  1. Author’s surname and initial,
  2. The year of publication (provided in brackets),
  3. Title (in italics),
  4. Publisher,
  5. Place of publication.


  • A monograph by one author:
    • Nowacki R. (2009), Reklama, Difin, Warszawa.
  • A monograph by multiple authors:
    • Nowacki R., Strużycki M. (2009), Reklama w przedsiębiorstwie, Difin, Warszawa.
  • An edited monograph:
    • Nowacki R., Strużycki M. (eds.) (2011), Reklama w procesach konkurencji, Difin, Warszawa.
  • A book chapter attributed to a specific author:
    • Nowacki R. (2015), Symbolika świąt religijnych i świeckich w przekazach reklamowych, (in:) Wiażewicz J., Zielińska A. (eds.), Determinanty i efekty współczesnej aktywności marketingowej, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszów.
  • A journal article:
    • Nowacki R. (2016), Postawy Polaków wobec nieetycznych działań reklamowych w świetle funkcjonowania Kodeksu Etyki Reklamy, ‘Handel Wewnętrzny’, no. 1.
  • A daily newspaper article:A publication by an institution, with no author or editor indicated:
    • Dobrański G. (2013), Podstawy rozwoju trwałego i zrównoważonego, ‘Gazeta Wyborcza’, 15 November.
    • GUS (2015), Rocznik demograficzny, Warszawa.
  • Electronic sources:
  • Websites or web pages containing materials with no author indicated:
    • Website or web page title, full URL, date of publication, date of access, e.g. Green Project – Rada Reklamy, [accessed: 26 June 2021].

or e.g.

    • (www1) Green Project – Rada Reklamy, [accessed: 26 June 2021].
  • Note:
    • Where it is possible to determine, the date of publication should also be included in the bibliography entry or fragment of the text concerned – it will help avoid errors in the interpretation of the relevance of the source material in question.
    • In the paper version of the text, no hyperlink format is applied for URLs: we write rather than
  • Legal acts:
    • Ustawa z dnia 29 września 1994 r. o (insert a reference to the printed publication or a link to a reliable website).

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