Society and Politics

Streszczenia artykulów

 Nr 4(69)/2021

Rafał Woźnowski

Badacz niezależny

Adam Michnik’s The Church the Left and a dialogue as taming Leszek Kołakowski’s Priest and the Devil


This text is an evaluative analysis of the issue which is broaden by analogies. It is a case study whose purpose is to show that it is essential to reach the fundamentals of Michnik’s beliefs in order to understand them. They have their roots in Kołakowski’s beliefs. It can be seen in a book entitled “Church, the Left, dialogue” where Michnik employs the figures of a priest and a clown. In defiance of Kołakowski, he wants to break that peculiar antagonism. The interpellation of private member’s club “Znak” indicated a new division. Instead of the Right and the Left, there was a division into supporters and opponents of totalitarianism. The glory years of Solidarity Movement is a crescendo of the dialogue. The triumphant church broke off the dialogue. Michnik repeats after Kołakowski that the culture must be protected in order not to fall. Being mindful of this need, some tones (especially those authentic ones – of a priest and a clown) must be tempered. In a community life inauthenticity is really useful.

Key words: code, dialogue, politics formula.

JEL Codes: Y9


Grzegorz Mazur

Uniwersytet Szczeciński

Vision of Poland presented by Jaroslaw Kaczyński


The article contains a description of the political doctrine covering the basic areas of the political system presented expressis verbis by Jarosław Kaczyński in the 1990s and included in program documents and legal acts by PiS (Law and Justice) party. The statements and political programs were confronted with each other over the years 1990–2014 as well as with real action aimed at implementing the above vision, which was built on the basis of the assessment of the state of the Poland shaped by a round-table agreement. Personal inspirations and authorities of the president Law and Justice party were also presented here, from which he drew his ideas to a large extent.

Keywords: Jarosław Kaczyński, political system, concept, description, implementation.

JEL Codes: D72



Robert Ćwiertnia

Badacz niezależny

Robotic Process Automation as a process management tool



One of the tools for optimizing organizational activities is the robotic process automation (RPA) which automates repetitive, manual tasks in order to eliminate human errors and reduce costs. Based on a literature scoping review, the article presents the place of RPA in the development of process management theory as well as economic effects of its implementations. The theoretical values of robotization indicate its high potential for optimization, which prompted the research hypothesis that RPA improves effectiveness of robotized processes. In addition, development of information technologies, especially in the field of cognitive systems, define the ever wider possibilities of algorithmization of office processes, thus increasing the potential of their robotization. The presented thesis has been confirmed in researched documents, which at the same time prompts in-depth research that may be the basis for a wider evaluation of these solutions.

Keywords: robotic process automation, work organization, process optimization, artificial intelligence, process management.

JEL Codes: J24, L21, M10



Michał Kruszka

Akademia Finansów i Biznesu Vistula w Warszawie

Structural Changes of the Banking Sector in the European Union

in the Years 2004-2019


The global financial crisis has had a significant impact on the European banking sector. This paper aims to determine the main structural effects of the financial turmoil, related to quantitative, but also qualitative aspects of the banking activity. The results, based on time series analysis and comparative studies, suggest that banking sector in the European Union has lost its importance defined by means of quantitative measures, such as size or cross-border activity. However, the improvement of the soundness of the EU banks, measured by means of the capital ratios or non-performing loans ratios, can be observed. On this basis, the positive, but only qualitative consequences of the financial crisis should be underlined. Therefore, stakeholders (including regulators, supervisors, and the public) should be more focused on the development rather its growth in the process of assessment of the banking sectors.

Keywords: banking sector, structure, concentration, efficiency.

JEL Codes: G21, G28



Beata Gałek

Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach

Behind the veils of secret foreign policy. Secret operations of intelligence - an outline of the problem


The tangle of globalization and the information revolution has created a reality, ideal for constructing multi-level strategies of influencing the directions and dynamics for social processes and complaints. Between diplomacy and war area for active foreign policy, more extensive than before emerged. The aim of the article is to discuss synthetic secret intelligence operations in light of existing research, to indicate the current conditions for the use those operations by the state in context of gaining and maintaining an advantage in the arena of action. The thesis prepares a sketch and contributes to the results of research for the purposes of determining the non informal role of intelligence in foreign policy

Keywords: covert actions, intelligence, foreign policy.

JEL Codes: F5, F52



Artur R. Juszczak

Badacz niezależny

Blood taboo. The concepts of religious and sacrificial slaughter in an interdisciplinary approach


The article aims to analyze the concepts of religious and sacrificial slaughter from the perspective of blood taboos and present their current definitions. In order to explore the subject objectively, it was necessary to assume interdisciplinarity, and as a result, an analysis from the perspective of religious studies and hygiene of food of animal origin. At the outset, the author addresses the issue of the religious prohibition of eating blood as an element inextricably linked with the slaughter of animals. Based on the texts of the Hebrew Bible, he presents the blood rite in the sacrificial system of the Israelites and analyzes its ritual functions. The author presents the taboo of blood that, despite the transformation of Judaism, has been preserved and is the basis of the food law. Secondly, he analyzes the importance of blood based on the texts of the Koran and presents the taboo of blood as one of the basic dietary principles of Muslim believers. Then he analyzes sacrificial slaughter on the example of religious rituals of Polish Tatars in Bohoniki in Podlasie. The author distinguishes it from religious slaughter, describing its ethical transformation in the second half of the 20th century and the current state; also deals with the advantages and disadvantages of routine (secular) slaughter. The arguments include blood taboos and health risks related to the presence of residual blood in meat. All the content is crowned with conclusions on the legitimacy of consent to religious slaughter in Poland and the need to conceptually separate it from sacrificial slaughter.

Keywords: taboo, blood, slaughter, religious, sacrificial.

JEL Codes: Y8


No. 3(68)/2021

Adam R. Bartnicki

Uniwersytet w Białymstoku

Law vs. Interests Russia after 1991


In Russia, after 1991, we can observe the crisis of rule of law in the political, economic and social area. The criminalization of the state, economy and the policy was part of a kind of inheritance from the Soviet Union. Its essence was manifested by omnipotence and impunity of elites, spreading the thesis about non conflict society and propaganda of common interests of society and oligarchs. Other components of the "decline" were: preservation of power by a large part of politicians from the former system and the elements of Soviet mentality and behaviour, the tendency to clientelism and servility, both in society and among the elites. Some elements of the old system were not only adapted to the new reality, but were even deeper. Such phenomena as corruption, shifts in power into the "dark" illegal structures, disregard of legal standards, contradictions existing between official propaganda and the real life, would be a common occurrence in the Soviet Union, but this contemporary Russia gave them a quasi-legal and almost certainly acceptable. Examples of how to ignore or bend the law went vertically from political power down the social ladder. Exerted and continues to exert a destructive influence on the political system, economy and society of Russia. Case study.

Keywords: Oligarchy, Russia, corruption, Yeltsin, Putin.

JEL Codes: K00, N00, P00



Anna Kovalska

Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Energy cooperation between Russia and Germany in the context of the Ukrainian crisis


Relations between Russia and Germany have a long and complicated history, during which there were periods of cooperation, conflicts and wars, which was determined by the progressive interactions of these countries. After the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany, these countries developed a strategic partnership in which the energy field was one of the most important factors of cooperation. In 2014, due to the annexation of Crimea to Russia and the conflict in eastern Ukraine, relations between Russia and Germany deteriorated significantly. This article attempts to analyze the energy cooperation between Russia and Germany during the conflict in Ukraine. The scientific literature used are important for solving the set research goals, as a comprehensive analysis allowed to identify the key problems facing Russia and Germany in the framework of bilateral energy cooperation, as well as the main problems and contradictions hampering the dialogue between these countries. Research article.

Keywords: energy policy, Nord Stream 2, Russia, German, Ukraine.

JEL Codes: N74, N44



Urszula Michalik-Marcinkowska

Szkoła Techniczna w Katowicach

Paweł Izdebski

Szpital Kliniczny im. Józefa Babińskiego w Krakowie

From the perspective of the system employee – improper allocation of funds in health care system. Part two – proposed changes


The article presents important factors of the life of an average citizen and their influence on his life, as well as on the whole society. It also points to the neglected areas of the Polish preventive healthcare system and health promotion. Other issues described in the article include the effects which environmental factors have on the general health and the limited competences of general practitioners and the problems of house calls and drug policy. Concept article.

Key words: funds, prevention, insurance, medical benefis, drug policy.

JEL Codes: I1



Marceli Hązła

Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu

Should the European Union become a federation?


The subject of the article is the analysis of the concept of federalisation of the European Union, as a worthwhile answer to many of the problems that afflict Europe. Because of economic integration which preceded political one, the European Union currently faces a number of systemic inconsistencies, which have caused it to be relatively weakened in the international scene, and which could be resolved by the adoption of a federal system. The article characterizes the EU's most important problems and presents the positive impact that federalisation could bring about. A broader view of political and economic issues reveals the need to strengthen the European Community in the midst of the growing economic powers of China, Russia and the United States, in order to avoid Europe's marginalization in the international scene.

Keywords: European Union, federalism, European integration.

JEL Codes: F02, F53



Anna Suska

Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie

The importance of simplified communication in the process of legitimizing the constitutional provisions


The article aims to describe the importance of using plain language in constitutional communication and the resulting benefits. It was inspired by observations of the political situation in Poland and in the world, which showed the existence of growing manipulative and populist tendencies distorting the law, value, and constitutional principles. The article shows the role of the constitution in the state and society, the essence and dynamics of legitimizing processes, as well as the benefits of simplified communication about the constitution for the acceptance of the legal order, constitutional principles, and values. The main conclusion from the article is that the practical knowledge of constitutional law increases the awareness of society, the effectiveness of its functioning in the political system, and reduces the likelihood of ideological manipulations and abuses of the authorities.

Keywords: communication, constitution, political culture, legitimization, plain language.

JEL Codes: K39



Karina Błażejczak

Uniwersytet Wrocławski

The place of the Polish Border Guard in the state security system and the typology dispositional groups


Sociology of dispositional groups deals with organized structures prepared to react quickly to prevent or eliminate hazards. Dispositional groups operate in the military, paramilitary and civil state security system. Like the Armed Forces (the Army), the Border Guard have been classified into the military system, even though it is a paramilitary service. The article is a polemic with this state of affairs and the correction of this inaccuracy. It is also a proposal to adopt more unambiguous criteria for the qualification of dispositional groups to particular security systems and to base its typology on the statutes of the said groups resulting from the legal regulations which define the nature, organization and functions of particular groups resulting from the currently existing threats. Concept article.

Keywords: sociology of dispositional groups, Border Guard, security, uniformed formations.

JEL Codes:  Y90


No. 2(67)/2021

Tadeusz Bartoś

Vistula University in Warsaw



Liberal democracy is the fruit of many centuries of evolution based on conflict between various interest groups. This struggle, or conflict, is the source of stability in state institutions, the law and the courts. It is a strange pitfall in which numerous strong entities are capable of enforcing their rights. The condition for a liberal democracy to be stable is therefore the existence of sustainable social stratification, opposing interests and forces among social entities. The destruction of social strata in post-communist states has become entrenched and created a new type of uniformized or groupthink society. The elimination of private ownership perpetuated over several generations, mass resettlements and the degradation of higher strata have created a new type of society devoid of genuine stratification, interest groups capable of engaging in conflict with efficacy. Many generations of evolution, including battles, disputes, perhaps of a revolutionary nature, are required for a sustainable structure of liberal democracy to be instilled in states belonging to the former Soviet bloc.

Keywords: Post-communist culture, tradition, revolution, uravnilovka, uniformization, top-down enforcement of uniformity, class struggle, class conflict, bourgeoisie.

JEL Codes: D7



Piotr Gierek

Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie



The society is aging more and more, there are more and more people in retirement age experiencing social exclusion, and thus the quality of life of older people is deteriorating, which has an impact on the activity of this social group. Activity in the life of every senior citizen is extremely important, because it can put an old age aside, it can not only add “years to life” to seniors, but also “life to years”. The aim of this article is to show the role of activity in counteracting social exclusion of seniors, as well as the issues of old age on the basis of selected literature on the subject. The article discusses the social roles played by seniors and selected forms of activity of the elderly. The main research method used in the article is the analysis of the literature on the subject. Review article.

Keywords: seniors, activity, social activation, social exclusion.

JEL Codes: I19, I39



Liudmyla Kryvachuk

Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie

Institute of the Ombudsman for Children in the system of childhood protection: the essence, international functioning models, experience of Ukraine


The article concerns the issues of the policy of protecting children’s rights, activities of the Ombudsman for Children in the childhood protection system. The article highlights and justifies the main models for the creation and operation of ombudsman institutes on children’s rights in an international context: ombudsman on children’s rights created in accordance with a special law adopted by the parliament regarding the ombudsman on children’s rights; ombudsmen on the rights of the child, created in accordance with the legislation on the protection of children’s rights; ombudsmen of children’s rights created and operating under existing public authorities; ombudsmen created from children’s rights based on non-governmental organizations. Particular attention was also paid to the basics and model of functioning of the Ombudsman for Children Institute in Ukraine.

Keywords: child, children’s rights, protection of children’s rights, ombudsman, children’s ombudsman.

JEL Codes: Z18



Urszula Michalik-Marcinkowska

Wyższa Szkoła Techniczna w Katowicach

Paweł Izdebski

Szpital Kliniczny im. Józefa Babińskiego w Krakowie




The article concerns the financial aspects of the Polish health care system. It presents the sources of its financing as well as its legal aspects, it also mentions health care patterns from other countries. The authors focus on the biggest areas of financial mismanagement in the health care, such as inadequate allocation of funds and faulty functioning of the health insurance system. The article refers also to the current health crisis connected with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: finances, health care, insurance policy, medical benefits.

JEL Codes: I1



Marcin Skinder

Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy



The subject of the article is to present the legal issues of employment of migrants and their health services. The research problem was formulated as a question: what employment and health problems of migrants are important within emigration and immigration. The author of the article also tries to answer the questions about the employment of non-UE migrants, problems of eastern and western Europe migrants, the trends of immigration to Poland, the creation of enterprises by foreigners in Poland. In the second part of the work, the author referred to the legal principles regarding foreign healthcare patients and periodic health examinations of foreign employees. The theoretical goal of the article is to present employment issues for foreigners from various legal perspectives. The practical goal is to indicate reforming factors in employment policy in relation to foreigners. The author used continuous sources from the paper ”Social Policy” and applicable legal acts.

Keywordslaw, migrant, foreigner, refugee, employment, health.

JEL Codes: F22, I13, J61, K37



Agnieszka Piejka

Chrześcijańska Akademia Teologiczna w Warszawie



Communing with otherness is a part of the contemporary human condition. Every day he encounters otherness in very different manifestations - cultural, religious, related to gender identity and sexuality, age, illness or disability. Such situations are not easy for the individual. We often react to what is foreign, different, with fear, uncertainty, and sometimes outright hostility. The aim of the considerations undertaken in this article is to show the role of education in preparing a person to live among others; laying the foundations for the ability to relate to the Other in a reflective, critical and responsible way. In this article I refer to the idea of general education aimed at developing such qualities and predispositions as critical thinking, self-reflection, empathy, imagination, and civic responsibility. I point to the ancient traditions from which this idea grows. I justify why general education has an essential role in preparing people to meet the Other and why it should be a commitment that all - not just a select few - teachers and educators will make.

Keywords: The Other, education for peace, general education, Paideia.

JEL Codes: I24, Z13



Marcin Płoski

Badacz niezależny

Czarzasty J., Mrozowicki A. (Ed.), Organizing trade unions in Europe: research and practice, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warszawa 2014, p. 179


The reviewed book takes up the socially and politically sensitive problem of trade unions’ organization. The activity of trade unions in Western Europe (Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Estonia, Poland, Slovenia and Romania) was presented as an antinomy. Despite of the fact that the working world is focused on issues such as wages, working conditions and working atmosphere, these issues vary from country to country. This review is therefore an attempt at a critical assessment and supplements the scientific problems that are insufficiently presented in this book.

Keywords: trade unions, employees, employers, peripheral workplaces, mobbing.

JEL codes: J01, J08, J28



No. 1(66)/2021

Wawrzyniec Konarski

Vistula University in Warsaw

Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics. Prolegomena to terminology and exemplification of leading ethnonational traditions in Central Europe in newest historical perspective

Abstract: The considerations in this article concern the scale of the impact of political traditions - based on the combination of ethnicity and nationalism - occurring in four Central European countries. In the first part, the author refers to the concepts of: ethnicity, nationalism and politics (and related concepts) and the relationships between them on the basis of selected research approaches, including by recalling his own, original understanding of nationalism. In this way, it creates a theoretical basis for the considerations in the second part focused on the reflection of the above-mentioned connections from the perspective of the political history of the recent and contemporary countries mentioned above. The author verifies the assumption to what extent the political tradition established earlier in these countries (or their predecessors, vide: Czechoslovakia as a past existence), based on the link between ethnicity and nationalism, is still alive today. The descriptive-historical method is therefore of leading importance in the comparative research approach used. This, in turn, makes it possible to formulate a general conclusion that the vitality of the political traditions of the above mentioned it is maintained while remaining diversified in terms of the strength of their present impact.

Keywords: ethnicity, nationalism, politics, ethnopolitics, Central Europe.

JEL Codes: Y8



Adam Kucharski

Papieski Wydział Teologiczny we Wrocławiu

Assessment of contemporary economic activity in an ethical perspective (selected issues)

Abstract: The perspective on economic activity, which is sometimes presented today, and refers mainly to economic goals, does not seem to fulfill the hopes placed in it. The reason for this state of affairs is to deprive it of the social context consistent with the real temporal goal of human activity, which is: the true development of man and his well-being. This place, according to the author, should be filled with an ethical approach to the undertaken activities, providing an appropriate atmosphere corresponding to the properly understood attributes of rationality and freedom inherent in human nature. It is not about any ethics, but precisely the one that promotes an unreduced image of man in the context of his temporal and eternal goals and the value of the common good. The purpose of this article is to present some arguments in the area of ​​Catholic social reflection emphasizing the role of ethics in economic life and its place in contact with the contemporary logic of economic success, and the adopted research method, based on recalling some statements from documents and literature in the field of Catholic social thought, was calculated to emphasize selected reasons raised as part of Catholic argumentation.

Keywords: ethics, good economy, gift logic.

JEL Codes: A12, Z10


Andrzej Wojtaszak

Uniwersytet Szczeciński

The position of Central European countries towards the Three Seas Initiative

Abstract: The establishment of the Three Seas Initiative (TSI) in 2016 initiated the integration processes around the concept of building a new geopolitical entity in Central Europe. The TSI itself was created as a result of a reaction from a group of countries belonging to the European Union to the increased threat from the Russian Federation after its attack on Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea. The countries of the region not only noticed the growing threat to military security, but also the growing energy dependence (Gazprom) on the Russian Federation. The whole concept of the TSI for the region's energy independence from the region met with a negative reaction from other EU countries (mainly France and Germany) and the Russian Federation itself. Gradually, the United States began to be positive about the Initiative. Apart from TSI countries, the very concept based on transport, IT and energy investments has met with the interest of other EU countries and countries outside the Community, for which it creates many new development opportunities.

Keywords: Three Seas Initiative, Central and Eastern Europe, European Union, United States, international security.

JEL Codes: F52, F53, O19



Jarosław Sozański

WUM Warszawa

Negative ethnic stereotypes as an example of legend on Latvian woman who reject Pole

Abstract: Do stigmatising national stereotype arises from ignorance? In 1927 Latvian bard Janis Rainis wrote play “Lave stronger then death”, gaining soon national legend, with a quality of historic fact. Here the Polish noble provoke deapth of teenager Rose of Turaida. Rainis probably copied the plot from XVI c. story written by M. Bielski or by later poetry of Baltic Germans of XVIII/XIX c. This stereotype became important in Latvian culture and history. But phenomenon is larger & more important, especially as image of Poles.

Keywords: negative & ethnic stereotype, national minorities, Janis Rainis, Rose of Turaida.

JEL Codes: K42, R5, Y10, Z11, Z18



Zbigniew Klimiuk

Instytut Pracy i Spraw Socjalnych w Warszawie

Monetary policy and anti-crisis measures of the Federal Reserve System during the crisis in the period 2007-2008

Abstract: The economic and financial crisis of 2007-2008 began with the American mortgage sector, which was highly sensitive to changes in interest rates. Changes in the rules of monetary policy should be sought as early as in 2001. Then the American economy plunged into recession caused by the crack of the so-called internet bank (dot-com bubble) and terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. From these events, the Federal Reserve System began to conduct a particularly active monetary policy, which undoubtedly contributed to the boom in the housing market. The aim of these activities was, of course, to bring about economic recovery, mainly by increasing consumption expenditure in construction. Low interest rates significantly contributed to the reduction of credit costs, which undoubtedly was an incentive for large-scale debt. Private consumption financed to a large extent by an increase in debt was one of the main drivers of imports, and as a result has also contributed to the widening of the US current account deficit. It should also be noted that in addition to very low nominal interest rates, real rates have started to take negative values. The real federal fund interest rate was negative for 31 months from October 2002 to April 2005. Business entities could read that the Fed's policy means a lasting improvement in farming conditions and a unique opportunity to grow their business. All this affected the mortgage market, which was and is very sensitive to changes in interest rates. At the same time, the rapid development of modern financial instruments began, which enabled the securitization of receivables from loans for other financial instruments with a very complex structure. They practically prevented inexperienced investors from correctly assessing the risk associated with their purchase.

Keywords: Federal Reserve System, monetary policy, economic and financial crisis 2007/2008, mortgage sector, real estate market, positive and negative interest rates, household debt, financial speculation, Great Depression.

JEL Codes: E62






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